Zero emission 100% electric 100% electric vehicles, otherwise known as “battery electric vehicles” or “pure electric vehicles”, are wholly driven by an electric motor, powered by a battery that can be plugged into the mains. There is no combustion engine. When the vehicle is slowing down, the motor is put into reverse to slow the vehicle down, acting as a mini-generator to top-up the battery. Known as “regenerative braking”, this can add 10 miles or more to the range of the vehicle. As 100% electric vehicles rely entirely on electricity for fuel, they do not produce any tailpipe emissions. At present, most of these vehicles on the market typically offer a range of around 100 miles, though many offer more. 100% electric vehicles have been around for over 100 years. The technology is as straightforward as it is mature, with the number of moving parts a fraction of what goes into conventionally-fuelled vehicles. That means much greater energy efficiency and less to go wrong. 100% electric vehicles are characterised by their smoothness. They usually only need a single gear, giving very even acceleration and deceleration for a smooth ride. With an electric motor, full power is available from the first instance, making these vehicles really nippy. There is also no engine noise. 100% electric vehicles can be charged directly from a normal socket. But to speed up recharging times there are a host of charging options available at public and residential locations. Plug-in hybrids The battery is much smaller than in a 100% electric vehicle and tends to drive the wheels at low speeds or for limited range. However, it is still sufficient in most models to cover well beyond the majority of the average trip lengths for UK drivers. After the battery range has been utilised, the hybrid capability means that the vehicle can continue journeys powered by its conventional engine. The use of an internal combustion engine means that plug-in hybrid vehicles tend to have tailpipe emissions of around 40-75g/km CO2 when measured against the current European test cycle. The key difference between a plug-in hybrid vehicle and conventional ‘mild’ hybrid vehicles is the “plug-in” bit. The battery in a plug-in hybrid is bigger, can be charged directly and allows the vehicle to have a zero emission range. Extended-range electric vehicles (E-REV) Extended-range electric vehicles have a plug-in battery pack and electric motor, as well as an internal combustion engine. The difference from a plug-in hybrid is that the electric motor always drives the wheels, with the internal combustion engine acting as a generator to recharge the battery when it is depleted. Range extenders can have pure electric range of up to 125 miles. This typically results in tailpipe emissions of less than 20g/km CO2. Throughout this website, we refer to ‘electric cars’, ‘electric vehicles’ and ‘plug-in cars’. The terms are all interchangeable descriptions of the vehicles set out above. Generally, we use ‘vehicles’ to refer to both cars and vans. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, also known as Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs), are another type of electric car and have a fuel cell stack which uses hydrogen to produce electricity which then powers the wheels of the vehicle. There is no internal combustion engine in a FCEV. The fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but unlike a battery it does not need recharging and will continue to generate power as long as it is fed with a supply of hydrogen. Fuel cells produce electricity and heat with just water produced at the tailpipe. Unlike battery-powered vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are refuelled at a filling station in a similar way to vehicles with a petrol or diesel engine. The FCEVs on the market have a range of around 300 miles. They take just three to five minutes to refuel and an initial network of 12 hydrogen filling stations is being developed across in the UK to support their roll out. Ultra Low Emission Vehicles We are Go Ultra Low because we want people to switch to ultra low emission vehicles. What does that mean? Well, it’s all the types of cars we’ve listed above which emit less than 75g/km C02. Zero emission vehicles are those that emit 0g/km C02.